You must have seen different types of batteries in your life. They have become an integral part of human life as they are the component of every electronic system. Wall clocks, wrist watches, calculators, and many other appliances contain batteries that are not chargeable while on the other hand Motorcycles, cars, etc, contain batteries that can be recharged again and again.
From here, we can conclude that there are two different types of batteries i.e Primary Batteries and Secondary Batteries.
These are the type of batteries that are used in different portable devices like cameras, clocks, etc, and once used, they are discarded as these batteries cannot be charged again. These batteries are inexpensive and lightweight and do not require any maintenance. These batteries can be produced in different shapes depending upon their use.
Zinc anode batteries are the most prominent batteries in the early 1970s. After that Zinc- Alkaline manganese dioxide batteries took place of already present batteries in the market. Lithium was used as anode in the batteries due to its higher specific energy and good shelf life. Lithium batteries were manufactured and were used for various applications like memory backups, watches, etc.
These are the types of batteries that can be charged over and over again when they are fully discharged. These batteries are used in different ways. The most common way is to fully consume the energy stored in these batteries and they are discharged completely as primary batteries. After discharging, these batteries are then connected to an electric source and are charged again through a selective charging mechanism. In other types, the secondary battery is connected to an energy source and is charged and utilized when it is required.
Secondary batteries have various other characteristics like High discharge rate, high power density, Low temperature, and flat discharge curve.
Some commonly used secondary batteries are
- Lead-acid batteries
- Nickel metal hydride batteries
- Lithium iron phosphate batteries
So far, lead-acid batteries are among the most commonly used secondary batteries. The electric efficiency of these batteries is between 70 to 80%. The most important thing that makes people use these batteries is their low cost. These batteries are used for emergency power, communication systems, etc. The most common use of these batteries is in electric vehicles. These batteries have various other characteristics as well like good voltage range, and different shapes and sizes depending upon their application.
Nickel metal hydride batteries
Ni-Cd batteries are among the oldest batteries available these days. The important advantage of these batteries is that they can be operated at very high temperatures. These batteries have a good shelf life and can be subjected to a high discharge rate. Along with these advantages, Ni-Cd batteries have one major disadvantage. When these batteries are partially discharged and then recharged, these batteries lose their performance progressively. When compared to lead-acid batteries, Ni-Cd batteries are far more expensive.
A start stop battery is designed using modern technology. The emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by using this battery as it turns off the engine when the car is stationary. As a result, the consumption of fuel is also reduced. Two types of start stop batteries are used
- ECM/AFB Battery
- AGM Battery
Lithium iron phosphate batteries
LiFePO4 battery is also referred to as lithium Ferro phosphate (FLP) battery. These batteries have various characteristics that make them better than lead-acid and other commonly used batteries. These batteries are manufactured with the latest technology and have a longer life span. These batteries have better efficiency as compared to other batteries and these batteries do not require any active maintenance. These batteries are lighter than lead-acid batteries. The major advantage of these batteries over lead-acid batteries is that the life span of these batteries is 10 times more. These batteries recharge at a faster rate. The price of lithium iron phosphate batteries is more than lead-acid batteries but it is a good investment that one should do in his life.